Let a child be!

The EmbryLife Center offers a whole range of services for diagnostics and treatment of both female and male infertility. Our specialists use American IVF technology: we work according to guidelines that have shown proven results in thousands of US patients. This technology has implicit excellent laboratory equipment capabilities, in strict compliance with ASRM (American Society for Reproductive Medicine) and ESHRE (European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology) requirements.

EmbryLife is the only clinic in Russia that has been accredited by the American Association of Embryologists.

(812) 327-50-50

35 Sadovaya St., St. Petersburg, Russia


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Acquired male infertility. Treatment of acquired male infertility.

Male infertility classification

According to current classification, male infertility is first of all subdivided into:

  • primary (congenital) male infertility
  • secondary (acquired) male infertility

the structure of the male reproductive system

Acquired (secondary) male infertility

The most frequent causes of secondary male infertility include:

  • varicocele
  • genital surgery and injuries
  • sexually-transmitted infections
  • intoxication
  • autoimmune disorders, etc.

Our clinic provides a whole range of the necessary laboratory testing, including sperm analysis and also hormonal, immunological, genetic testing and testing for latent infections. The up-to-date ultrasound apparatus makes it possible to perform high-level examination of the prostate and scrotal organs. And last, but not least - we have provided for most confidential setting for the examination procedure.

high-fertile sperm low-fertile sperm

What is varicocele?

Varicocele (varicosity of spermatic cord veins) is the most frequent cause of male infertility accounting for up to 40% secondary male infertility cases. It is caused by anatomic predisposition to venous congestion primarily in the left testicular vein. Disorders in the venous blood outflow affect arterial blood circulation, impair testicular thermal regulation and increase the local temperature (the scrotal temperature should normally be two degrees lower than body temperature). Varicocele is present in 30% of men in varying degrees, especially in asthenic men, in those predisposed to venous insufficiency and in athletes with high physical activity. Prolonged venous congestion leads to impaired sperm quality and development of autoimmune disorders. This affects the so-called hemato-testicular barrier protecting the testicular tissue and spermatozoa from the negative impact of its own immunity, which causes the formation of antisperm antibodies inhibiting not only sperm motility, but also its fertilization activity. And in advanced cases, varicocele may even lead to complete testicular atrophy. Surgical treatment is the principal method of varicocele treatment. And the earlier it is started, the higher the chances to have children. The up-to-date equipment currently allows laparoscopic surgery to be performed with a short hospitalization period and minimum complications and recurrences.

The influence of genital infections on male infertility

Genital infections are another cause of acquired male infertility. While the negative reproductive impact of gonorrhea and chlamydiosis both in women and in men was proven long ago, the relevance of mycoplasma – ureaplasma infection is still under discussion. From the urologist’s viewpoint, any chronic inflammatory process in the genitals, even that caused by apparently pathogenic flora, not to mention repeated recurrences, will sooner or later lead to irreversible structural changes in the vas deferens and the testicular reproductive tissue. Therefore, timely treatment as well as diagnosis of the infections is required.

Autoimmune disorders and male infertility

Autoimmune disorders involving a conflict between a person’s immunity and their own tissue also affect the sperm quality. Besides antisperm antibodies, men may also have antibodies to testicular tissue antigens. This may be caused by various reasons: genital injuries and surgery, inflammatory infection processes, developmental defects, varicocele, etc.Moreover, antisperm antibodies to a certain man may be produced in women as well, preventing natural fertilization.

Spermatozoon structure and quality

Above, we have discussed the most frequent causes of acquired male infertility. But unfortunately, it is not always so easy to suspect male fertility disorders. Even in the case of the apparently good condition of male genital functioning, fertility problems cannot be excluded. So, you cannot do without a laboratory examination by an urologist/andrologist.