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The EmbryLife Center offers a whole range of services for diagnostics and treatment of both female and male infertility. Our specialists use American IVF technology: we work according to guidelines that have shown proven results in thousands of US patients. This technology has implicit excellent laboratory equipment capabilities, in strict compliance with ASRM (American Society for Reproductive Medicine) and ESHRE (European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology) requirements.

EmbryLife is the only clinic in Russia that has been accredited by the American Association of Embryologists.

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35 Sadovaya St., St. Petersburg, Russia

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Congenital male infertility. Treatment of congenital male infertility.


Male infertility classification

According to current classification, male infertility is first of all subdivided into:

  • primary (congenital) male infertility
  • secondary (acquired) male infertility

the structure of the male reproductive system

Congenital (primary) male infertility

Congenital male infertility is most frequently caused by:

  • developmental defects of the genitals, primarily, the testes
  • various genetic disorders in the chromosomal sets and their fragments
spermatozoa with normal structure  spermatozoa with abnormal structure

Cryptorchidism. Pseudo-cryptorchidism.

By the time of birth, the boys’ testes should have moved from the abdomen down to the scrotum. The absence of one or both testes is called cryptorchidism. About 2 to 5% boys are born with an undescended testis. The undescended testicle will be detected by a physician during postnatal examination of the boy. For normal fertility of a man, the testicular temperature should be a little lower than the normal body temperature. The testes’ descent into the scrotum ensures the necessary lowered temperature. The undescended testis is exposed to other conditions, which enhance the risk of further complications, including infertility. Cryptorchidism is usually corrected surgically. The surgery involves small incisions and may be performed laparoscopically

There is also pseudo-cryptorchidism, in which a testis moves freely via the inguinal ring into the abdomen and back to the scrotum. The late descent of a testis or its permanent injury may lead to irreversible changes, up to atrophy. An underdeveloped testis is not only incapable of producing spermatozoa and sex hormones, it also negatively affects the second, healthy testis. This is an example of typical developmental defects.

It is very important that parents notice any abnormalities in a boy, not only in infancy, but especially in puberty. Observation of external and accessory genital development, pubic hair growth pattern, body structure, fat deposits, mammary glands, and voice pattern changes will help to suspect any abnormalities and make a timely visit to specialists.

Influence of infectious diseases on the development of infertility

We would like to draw your attention to such a seemingly simple disease as viral parotitis, or mumps that is especially important during puberty. Many people underestimate the impact of this illness on future health. Not all parents know that parotitis involves the risk of a severe complication, i.e., acute orchiepididymitis (testis and epididymis inflammation), which may lead to structural and irreversible changes in the testicular tissue, up to complete sterility.

Spermatozoon structure and quality

Above, we have discussed the most frequent causes of congenital male infertility. But unfortunately, it is not always so easy to suspect male fertility disorders. Even in the case of the apparently good condition of male genital functioning, fertility problems cannot be excluded. So, you cannot do without a laboratory examination by an urologist/andrologist.

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